It’s been three years since the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force launched the mammography wars with its controversial recommendation that most women get fewer of the breast cancer screening exams — one every other year between the ages of 50 and 74. Younger women could get tested if they wanted to.
The recommendations were made after researchers tested 20 screening strategies using six different models of how breast cancer grows and spreads. Task force members emphasized that routine mammograms catch three kinds of cancers: those that are too aggressive to be cured, those that could become deadly but are caught early enough to be treated, and those that would never cause any harm. Only women with cancers in the second category benefit from screening exams; meanwhile, widespread annual testing brings real harm in the form of false-positive test results and invasive, unnecessary treatment.
But many people vehemently protested, especially women (and their loved ones) who believe their lives were saved by screening mammograms that caught small, treatable cancers when they were in their 40s. The American Cancer Society continues to advise women to get screening mammograms annually beginning at age 40 and for as long as they are healthy. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also recommends annual mammograms beginning at age 40.
In November, the New England Journal of Medicine published three viewpoints about mammograms. One of them endorsed the American Cancer Society’s viewpoint, another endorsed the task force’s recommendations, and a third (by an epidemiologist and cancer surgeon in Norway) argued that routine mammographic